Users online: 56  Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this article Email this article
Search Again
 Table of Contents
 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Article Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert
 Add to My List
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded295    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 4    

Recommend this journal

Year : 2012  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23

Duplication of the pituitary gland associated with multiple blastogenesis defects: Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG)-plus syndrome. Case report and review of literature

1 Division of Neurosurgery, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
2 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Correspondence Address:
Robert T Geertman
Division of Neurosurgery, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio
Login to access the Email id

DOI: 10.4103/2152-7806.92939

PMID: 22439114

Get Permissions

Background: Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a rare craniofacial developmental anomaly occurring during blastogenesis with postulated etiology such as incomplete twinning, teratogens, median cleft face syndrome or splitting of the notochord. The complex craniocaudal spectrum of blastogenesis defects associated with DPG is examined with an illustrative case. Case Description: We report for the first time in the medical literature some unique associations with DPG, such as a clival encephalocele, third cerebral peduncle, duplicate odontoid process and a double tongue with independent volitional control. This patient also has the previously reported common associations such as duplicated sella, cleft palate, hypertelorism, callosal agenesis, hypothalamic enlargement, nasopharyngeal teratoma, fenestrated basilar artery and supernumerary teeth. This study also reviews 37 cases of DPG identified through MEDLINE literature search from 1880 to 2011. It provides a detailed analysis of the current case through physical examination and imaging. Conclusion: The authors propose that the developmental deformities associated with duplication of pituitary gland (DPG) occur as part of a developmental continuum, not as chance associations. Considering the fact that DPG is uniquely and certainly present throughout the spectrum of these blastogenesis defects, we suggest the term DPG-plus syndrome.



Print this article         Email this article